【閱讀教學】以內容為導向的課程設計

閱讀是開啟知識的鑰匙,透過文字魔法帶領著我們穿越不同的領域。身為英文老師的你心裡或許在吶喊著:「這我都知道!」,但現實是「學生就是不愛閱讀啊!!! 他們只喜歡逛 IG、看網紅和刷臉書」。是的,現代人手裡都握著一個小宇宙,每天都活在這迷人的小框框裡,藍光螢幕裡似乎藏著太多的色彩和新鮮事。然而,網路裡的文字時常是短且片段式,孩子仍需要從句子,段落,甚至到長篇文章的理解能力,以及獨立思考的判斷力。接下來,要跟老師們分享如何運用 Non-fiction 及 Fiction 兩種差異頗大的文章類型,透過教材內容引導和簡單教案設計,同時刺激學生學習動機並培養獨立思考的關鍵能力。

Non-fiction 類文章

真實人物事件

上篇文章所提及,閱讀是最容易結合 CLIL 及 STEAM 理念的開端,然而硬梆梆的學科內容,身為語言教育者的我們,難免擔心自身背景知識不足而望之卻步。其實,透過有趣的真實語料,學生往往會因為選材是真實生活環境可以觸及的,而產生連結感,進而誘發好奇及學習動力。

 (圖一)

上面這篇 What Do the Elephants Do?  即是透過大象在農村的日常,引發學生好奇心 (見圖一)。特別是當他們讀到 Paul says they only have to eat and poo.,了解這是真實發生在泰國的農場,而這農場生產的是目前世界最昂貴的咖啡 (見圖二)。透過內容,可以延伸的是橫跨自然,生態,動保,咖啡產業等多元議題的討論。而這也無形中給了學生許多刺激和思考的機會。

(圖二)

另外,這篇與運動籃球相關的內容 (見圖三),同時也點出 can 的用法及句構,透過句子如 She can run. She can throw. 和 She can catch the ball. ,學生不但學會表達【能力】的用法,若再搭配有趣的 project (見圖四),試著替動物選手選擇適合的位置。立即就能運用此課程裡所學到的語料,如: I chose kangaroo because it can jump very high! 來說明為何做出這樣的選擇。最後再輔以真實 WNBA 選手 Sue Bird 的故事 (見圖五),整個課程產生溫度,閱讀的內容不再有距離,而是真真切切地發生在你我的日常裡。

(圖三)

 (圖四)

     (圖五)

教案範例

分享以What do the elephants do? 在課堂裡可操作的教案範例。

Unit

What Do Elephants Do?

Students

3rd Grader

Time

50 mins per class

Classes

Two Classes

Materials

Student Book, R21 APP or flashcards, Interactive whiteboard or projector

Reference

Teacher Manual, online video, pictures of Black Ivory farm or coffee

Objectives

Vocabulary: worker, farm, different, horse, carry, coffee

Pattern: There is/ There are/ have (has) to

Subject Matter: Social Study/ Animals Protection/ Environment

At the end of the class, students should be able to...

  • Use the target vocab in writing and conversation.
  • Construct sentences using patterns There is, there are, have/has to
  • Compare and contrast the different types of farm and animals

21st Century Skills:  Communication, Collaboration, Critical Thinking

Teaching Procedures

Warm Up (Before Reading): 5-10 mins

  • Have students look at the illustration first and ask what they think the story might be?
  • Ask “How many elephants do they see?” have them practice patterns There are
  • Ask them to list the farm animals they know and compare with their partners.

While Reading: 20 mins

  • Using flashcards or R21 App to show them the keywords before reading.
  • Have students read the story quietly and mark words they might have problems with.
  • Have one of the students read aloud, and the rest of the class follows.
  • Explain target vocab and patterns or those they don’t understand.

After Reading: 15-20 mins

  • Check Ss’ comprehension and ask them what they think about the elephants working at the farm. ( Social Study, Animal Protection)
  • Have them take a look at the Fun Fact and ask them if they would like to drink “Black Ivory coffee, and why?”
  • Ask them what they think of animals working on the farm? Do animals have to work?
  • If time is allowed, show them other coffee that made by other animals’ poo

Fiction 類文章

故事發展的小曲折

故事性的文本一直是教學現場的主流,不管是經典文學或是原創故事,只要內容生動有趣,都容易激發學生想知道「結局」而繼續閱讀的動力。可惜的是,大部分的經典文學文本,並非皆適合學生的年齡或程度,即便經過改寫,也常缺乏學生「主動參與」或「獨立思考」練習。因此,在挑選閱讀內容時應兼顧學生程度以及提供學生參與的機會,參考範例如下:

 (圖六)

「羅密歐與茱麗葉」是大多數人都知道的經典故事,但如何改寫成合適國小二年級學生的內容,這篇就做了很好的示範 (見圖六)。文章內不直接點出 Romeo & Juliet,而以 R & J 當作代號,這樣的設定,馬上就誘發出孩子的好奇心,文內寫道 But R’s Family didn’t like J’s family. What could they do? 這就是開啟了學生 involve 的關鍵,孩子不在是旁觀者,每個人都有機會變成 R & J 獻策的智多星。

(圖七)

當然原創題材比起經典可以增加更多可能性,也更能注入新穎的元素。The Strangest Dream 以「夢境」延伸想像空間,這樣的主題,非常適合讓學生有創意發想的機會 (見圖七)。若再仔細看一下文本,會發現  “She was walking through a blue forest when she saw her grandfather.” “…he was talking to a lion.” 談論過去或夢境間發生的行為,大量的過去進行式句構被運用於文章中,課後討論可以以What was your strangest dream?” 過去進行式的用法馬上就可以運用於表達裡。當然老師們也可以進行與「夢境」相關的故事,延伸更多學生自身經驗的討論。

教案範例

原創故事,一般都會直接與文學結合。但如何融合其他學科,並同時兼顧語言學習,以 The Strangest Dream 在課堂裡可操作的教案範例。

Unit

The Strangest Dream

Students

4th Grader

Time

50 mins per class

Classes

Two Classes

Materials

Student Book, R21 APP, Interactive whiteboard or projector, Dream Catcher

Reference

Teacher Manual, online video, classic tale related to dreams

Objectives

Vocabulary: yesterday, wave, granddaughter, thirsty, cup, wake up

Pattern:  past continuous and simple past, regular and irregular past verbs

Subject Matter: Fiction: literature / Animals / Culture

At the end of the class, students should be able to…

  • Use the target vocab in writing and conversation.
  • Construct sentences using patterns when + past verb, S + be +Ving
  • Understand the importance of sequencing.

21st Century Skills:  Communication, Collaboration, Critical Thinking, and Creativity

Teaching Procedures

Warm Up (Before Reading): 5-10 mins

  • Have student look at the illustration first and ask what they think the story might be?
  • Ask “What was the strangest thing in the picture?” and “What happened in the picture?”  have them practice patterns The Lion was flying…(past continuous)
  • Ask them if they had a strange dream before? What was it?

While Reading: 20 mins

  • Using flashcards or R21 App to show them the keywords before reading.
  • Have students read the story quietly and mark words they might have problems with.
  • Have one of the students read aloud, and the rest of the class follows.
  • Explain target vocab and patterns or those they don’t understand.

After Reading: 15-20 mins

  • Check Ss’ comprehension, and ask them what regular and irregular verbs they can find in the text.
  • Ask them what story they read before is about. 
  • Show them a dream catcher (real or photo), ask them if they know anything about it? Have them work with a partner and share with the class. 
  • Have students come up with a solution if they have bad dreams.

結語

透過以上分享,我們可以看到閱讀課程的更多可能性,當然好的文章可以節省老師構思課程的時間,但也是因為在教育現場的您們,才可以賦予這些素材更多生命力!! 就從今天開始,讓我們一起真正的讓孩子透過閱讀打開未來更多的可能性!

(以上插圖皆出自 R21-Reading for 21st Century Kids 系列

 

更多 Chris Yang 老師好文分享:  

【教學診療室】21世紀學習者需要的閱讀學習 

【閱讀教學】我們與閱讀教學的距離

 

作者簡介│Chris Yang

  • 敦煌書局出版部經理─熱血的語言教材出版人
  • 多年教學、教育訓練以及課程規劃經驗
  • 中央奧克拉荷馬大學教育碩士